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Bone Grafting

 

Major and Minor bone grafting

Over a period of time, the jawbone associated with missing teeth atrophies or is reabsorbed. This often leaves a condition in which there is poor quality and quantity of bone suitable for placement of dental implants. In these situations, most patients are not candidates for placement of dental implants.

Today, we have the ability to grow bone where needed. This not only gives us the opportunity to place implants of proper length and width, it also gives us a chance to restore functionality and esthetic appearance.

Major Bone Grafting

Bone grafting can repair implant sites with inadequate bone structure due to previous extractions, gum disease or injuries. The bone is either obtained from a tissue bank or your own bone is taken from the jaw, hip or tibia (below the knee.) Sinus bone grafts are also performed to replace bone in the posterior upper jaw. In addition, special membranes may be utilized that dissolve under the gum and protect the bone graft and encourage bone regeneration. This is called guided bone regeneration or guided tissue regeneration.

Major bone grafts are typically performed to repair defects of the jaws. These defects may arise as a result of traumatic injuries, tumor surgery, or congenital defects. Large defects are repaired using the patient’s own bone. This bone is harvested from a number of different sites depending on the size of he defect. The skull (cranium), hip (iliac crest), and lateral knee (tibia), are common donor sites. These procedures are routinely performed in an operating room and require a hospital stay.

Sinus Lift Procedure

The maxillary sinuses are behind your cheeks and on top of the upper teeth. Sinuses are like empty rooms that have nothing in them. Some of the roots of the natural upper teeth extend up into the maxillary sinuses. When these upper teeth are removed, there is often just a thin wall of bone separating the maxillary sinus and the mouth. Dental implants need bone to hold them in place. When the sinus wall is very thin, it is impossible to place dental implants in this bone.

There is a solution and it’s called a sinus graft or sinus lift graft. The dental implant surgeon enters the sinus from where the upper teeth used to be. The sinus membrane is then lifted upward and donor bone is inserted into the floor of the sinus. Keep in mind that the floor of the sinus is the roof of the upper jaw. After several months of healing, the bone becomes part of the patient’s jaw and dental implants can be inserted and stabilized in this new sinus bone.

The sinus graft makes it possible for many patients to have dental implants when years ago there was no other option other than wearing loose dentures.

If enough bone between the upper jaw ridge and the bottom of the sinus is available to stabilize the implant well, sinus augmentations and implant placement can sometimes be performed as a single procedure. If not enough bone is available, the Sinus Augmentation will have to be performed first, then the graft will have to mature for several months, depending upon the type of graft material used. Once the graft has matured, the implants can be placed.

Ridge Expansion

In severe cases, the ridge has been reabsorbed and a bone graft is placed to increase ridge height and/or width. This is a technique used to restore the lost bone dimension when the jaw ridge gets too thin to place conventional implants. In this procedure, the bony ridge of the jaw is literally expanded by mechanical means. Bone graft material can be placed and matured for a few months before placing the implant.

Nerve - repositioning


The inferior alveolar nerve, which gives feeling to the lower lip and chin, may need to be moved in order to make room for placement of dental implants to the lower jaw. This procedure is limited to the lower jaw and indicated when teeth are missing in the area of the two back molars and/or and 2nd premolar, with the above-mentioned secondary condition. Since this procedure is considered a very aggressive approach (there is almost always some postoperative numbness of the lower lip and jaw area, which dissipates only very slowly, if ever), usually other, less aggressive options are considered first (placement of blade implants, etc.)

Typically, we remove an outer section of the cheek side of the lower jawbone in order to expose the nerve and vessel canal. Then we isolate the nerve and vessel bundle in that area, and slightly pull it out to the side. At the same time we place the implants we’ll be tracking the neuro-vascular bundle. Then the bundle is released and placed back over the implants. The surgical access is refilled with bone graft material of the surgeon’s choice and the area is closed.

These procedures may be performed separately or together, depending upon the individual's condition. As stated earlier, there are several areas of the body that are suitable for attaining bone grafts. In the maxillofacial region, bone grafts can be taken from inside the mouth, in the area of the chin or third molar region or in the upper jaw behind the last tooth. In more extensive situations, a greater quantity of bone can be attained from the hip or the outer aspect of the tibia at the knee. When we use the patient’s own bone for repairs or addition, we generally get the best results.

In many cases, we can use allograft material to implement bone grafting for dental implants. This bone is prepared from cadavers and used to get the patients own bone to grow into the repair site. It is quite effective and very safe. Synthetic materials can also be sued to stimulate bone formation. We even use factors from your own blood to accelerate and promote bone formation in graft areas.

These surgeries are performed in the out-office surgical suite under IV sedation or general anesthesia. After discharge, bed rest is recommended for one day and limited physical activity for one week.

Newest Technologies

There are some cases where bone is needed where a completely synthetic product can be substituted instead of taking the patient's own bone. The product is called INFUSE and is manufactured by Medtronics and is the latest addition to the surgical options in patients with deficient bone. The product is the exact chemical protein that triggers bone formation in humans. The protein is rhBMP-2 (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2) in a pure, freeze-dried powder form. This is a naturally occurring protein common to all humans and animals with bone that is found in very small amounts, and its purpose is to stimulate bone formation at the site in which it's placed. The natural carrier of the protein is an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS), which is made from a material found in bone and tendons. The ACS releases the protein over time in the location where it is placed, and provides a scaffold on which new bone can grow. As the graft site heals, the ACS is absorbed and replaced by bone. The advantage of using this product is offers the patient another choice in bone grafting. Patient that are candidates for INFUSE, can choose this method of grafting thus avoiding having to have their own bone harvest from another spot in their mouth or body.

For more information on this product, please see: https://www.infusebonegraft.com/omf_index.html.

PIEZOSURGERY

Dr. Bohannan is proud to introduce this new technology to his patients. Bone surgery has become much easier thanks to new technology. Utilizing modulated ultrasound, this surgical unit called "the piezosurgery unit" vibrates and cuts the bone but minimizes damage to soft tissues (gums, cheeks, but more importantly sinus membranes, nerves and blood vessels). Thanks to its controlled three-dimensional ultrasound oscillations, the Piezosurgery technique rings in a new age for osteotomy and osteoplasty in Implantology, Periodontology, Endodontics and Orthodontic Surgery. Its main features are:
- Micrometric cutting: Maximum surgical precision and intra-operative sensibility;
- Selective cutting: Maximum safety for the soft tissues;
- Cavitation effect: Maximum intra-operative visibility (bloodless field).  More information about this device see this site.

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